Tangata Whenua o Aotearoa

These are the names of those people whom were present in Aotearoa prior to the arrival of Toi te Huatahi:

Maruiwi.

Ruatamore.

Pananehu.

Taitawaro.

Ngatimamoe.

Ngatikoaupari.

Ngatikopuwai, and others.

The Waka in which those people came here were Kahutara and Taikoria.

These are all the Waka that have been heard of.

Maruiwi had one of these Waka, Ruatamore another.

It has however been spoken, that Okoki was the Waka of Taitawaro, and he said the name was given to a pa south side of Parininihi.

Okoki pa is just north of the Urenui river, twenty-three miles north of New Plymouth, and it was here that the Tai Tawaro people first lived, whilst they owned many pa in that district even from Waitara to Mokau.

Maruiwi himself died in those parts; he was a great chief of those people.

Otaka was another pa of Te Tini o Taitawaro.

Taitawaro had a brother named Pohokura, whose name was applied by his people to the pa in which they lived which is an isolated fortified hill on the north bank of the Urenui river.

Maruiwi lived also at Tamaki whilst the Ruatamore dwelt at Muriwhenua and as far south as Tamaki.

When these people increased greatly in numbers, they came to be called Te Tini o Maruiwi, Te Tini o Ruatamore, Te Tini o Pananehu and Te Tini o Taitawaro.

The whole of the country from the North Cape to Tamaki and even on to Tauranga was covered by them.

Again, all the country from Mokau to Oakura was occupied by them; but they did not extend beyond.

None of these people ever got so far as the South Island until they were afterwards driven there by the new arrivals.

The Ngati Mamoe, Ngati Koaupari, Ngati Kopuwai and Ngati Pananehu were divisions which sprung from Te Tini o Ruatamore, Te Tini o Maruiwi and Te Tini o Taitawaro.

One account of this people says that their island was called Horanuiatau, and another, Haupapanuiatau.

Their original home was very hot whilst Aotearoa was very cold to them.

There was plenty of fish and birds in those islands, and that Aotearoa was koroiti, which was their word for small.

These people did not know their genealogies.

They were treacherous and given to murdering their wives, and their travelling companions, and this was one of the reasons why their women preferred the people from the new arrivals, because they were kind to their wives, were possessed of clothing and food, and also because of the superiority of the men in stature and bearing.

This is why the new arrival people became possessed of so many of their women, who were generally picked out for their good looks; others were given by their own people, others again were asked for by the people from the new arrivals.

It was partly through fear of the local people that this course was pursued, for they were exceedingly numerous -he wehi i te nui o aua iwi, he tinitini te nui o te tangata o aua iwi nei-.

And, moreover, when it subsequently came to the period of war with this people, the women were taken, as well as boys, as servants, and the result of this process was that the new arrivals very quickly grew to be numerous in the land.

After the new arrivals had become numerous, troubles arose through the tangatawhenua, who commenced murdering the migrants, stealing the food from the whata and other evils.

So, it was decided by the new arrivals, to exterminate those branches of the tangatawhenua, who were not connected with them by marriage.

The wars commenced with Te Tini o Maruiwi, whence arises the expression -te heke o Maruiwi-.

They were first smitten at Te Wairoa, at Mohaka, then at Taupo, at Rotorua, at Tauranga, at Tamaki, at Hauraki, at Hokianga, at Mokau, in fact wherever they lived; all were killed except those who were living amongst and had become part of the new arrivals, who were then said to be the same people as the latter.

Ngati Ti Koaupari were exterminated at Mohaka, Ngati Ruatamore at Te Wairoa, at Rotorua, Tamaki, Hauraki, Tauranga, Mokau, Urenui, thence they fled to, where further massacres took place.

The Tini o Taitawaro fled to Arapawa and thence to Wharekauri.

We return to the explanation about the disruption of the descendants of Maruiwi, of Rua Tamore, of Taitawaro, of Pananehu, and of Toi and his descendants here, in order that we may relate the causes why they separated to various tribes.

The principal men of those tribes, as has been said, were Tamaki, Maruiwi, Rua Tamore, Te Pananehu and Taitawaro, and others whose names they have given to their homes, or tribes.

The rapid increase of the new arrivals was due to the numerous inter marriages and the number of persons taken during the wars with this ancient people; and the taking of the women, together with the seizure of the land, was one of the chief causes of those wars.

Their fishing places at sea and inland were taken, which also gave rise to constant troubles, ending in the wars of extermination already referred to, when many were driven away to exhausted, barren titohea lands, and to the mountains, there to live.

Here given is a list of the tribal divisions in the time of Toi, and his immediate descendants, who were mostly, if not wholly, tangata whenua:

Ngati Pukenga.

Ngati Waiohua.

Ngati Waipapa.

Ngati Haeremariri.

Ngati Raupongaoheohe.

Ngati Papakawhero.

Ngati Maruiwi.

Ngati Turumauku.

Ngati Tawarikiriki.

Ngati Waitoo.

Ngati Pungatere.

Ngati Rauhi.

Ngati Turuhunga.

Ngati Kopaka.

Ngati Tauwhare.

Ngati Oinuku.

Ngati Oiroa.

Ngati Pukepuke.

Ngati Paretai.

Ngati Muraahi.

Ngati Te Maherehere and Ngati Tawhiri.

These were the hapu of Toi in this island, who dwelt at Whakatane and other places.

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